Plagues Pandemics and Viruses

Plagues  Pandemics and Viruses
Author: Heather E. Quinlan
Release: 2020-11-01
Editor: Visible Ink Press
Pages: 329
ISBN: 9781578597369
Language: en
Available for:

REVIEWS:

It can come in waves—like tidal waves. It changes societies. It disrupts life. It ends lives. As far back as 3000 B.C.E. (the Bronze Age), plagues have stricken mankind. COVID-19 is just the latest example, but history shows that life continues. It shows that knowledge and social cooperation can save lives. Viruses are neither alive nor dead and are the closest thing we have to zombies. Their only known function is to replicate themselves, which can have devastating consequences on their hosts. Most, but not all, bacteria are good for us. Some are truly horrific, including those that caused the bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic plagues. And viruses and bacteria are always morphing, evolving, and changing, making them hard to treat. Plagues, Pandemics, and Viruses: From the Plague of Athens to Covid 19 is an enlightening, and sometimes frightening, recounting of the destruction wrought by disease, but it also looks at what man has done and can do to overcome even the deadliest and bleakest of contagions. From the plague of Athens to the COVID-19 pandemic, this fascinating tome covers the history, causes, medical treatments, human responses, and aftermath of the world’s biggest pandemics as well as several modern diseases of note and those that are making a comeback. It chronicles the diseases that have inflicted man throughout the millennia, including ... The bubonic plague/black plague, which wiped out 30% to 60% of Europe’s population The devastation to the indigenous population during the European colonization of the Americas The 1918 Spanish Flu, which did not come from Spain How disease “inspired” The Canterbury Tales, Wuthering Heights, the pop art of Keith Haring, and other art and literature AIDS’ “patient zero” The differences between COVID-19 and other coronaviruses How climate change will affect future pandemics The aftermath of various pandemics Several modern diseases making a comeback ... and much, much more. Along with investigating some of history’s most notorious pandemics and diseases, Plagues, Pandemics, and Viruses takes a look at human resilience and what we’ve learned from the past. It looks at how science, the medical community, and governments have conquered or mitigated most epidemics even before they can turn into pandemics. It reviews the science of pandemics, preventative measures, and medical interventions and it includes an exclusive interview with Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases since 1984, as well as other experts in the medical community. Richly illustrated, it also has a helpful bibliography and extensive index. This invaluable resource is designed to help you understand, and protect you from, plagues, pandemics, epidemics, viruses, and disease!

Plagues Pandemics and Viruses

Plagues  Pandemics and Viruses
Author: HEATHER E.,Heather E. Quinlan
Release: 2020-11
Editor: Unknown
Pages: 400
ISBN: 1578597048
Language: en
Available for:

REVIEWS:

It can come in waves--like tidal waves. It changes societies. It disrupts life. It ends lives. As far back as 3000 B.C.E. (the Bronze Age), plagues have stricken mankind. COVID-19 is just the latest example, but history shows that life continues. It shows that knowledge and social cooperation can save lives. Viruses are neither alive nor dead and are the closest thing we have to zombies. Their only known function is to replicate themselves, which can have devastating consequences on their hosts. Most, but not all, bacteria are good for us. Some are truly horrific, including those that caused the bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic plagues. And viruses and bacteria are always morphing, evolving, and changing, making them hard to treat.Plagues, Pandemics, and Viruses: From the Plague of Athens to Covid 19 is an enlightening, and sometimes frightening, recounting of the destruction wrought by disease, but it also looks at what man has done and can do to overcome even the deadliest and bleakest of contagions. From the plague of Athens to the COVID-19 pandemic, this fascinating tome covers the history, causes, medical treatments, human responses, and aftermath of the world's biggest pandemics as well as several modern diseases of note and those that are making a comeback. It chronicles the diseases that have inflicted man throughout the millennia, including ... The bubonic plague/black plague, which wiped out 30% to 60% of Europe's population The devastation to the indigenous population during the European colonization of the Americas The 1918 Spanish Flu, which did not come from Spain How disease "inspired"The Canterbury Tales, Wuthering Heights, the pop art of Keith Haring, and other art and literature AIDS' "patient zero" The differences between COVID-19 and other coronaviruses How climate change will affect future pandemics The aftermath of various pandemics Several modern diseases making a comeback ... and much, much more. Along with investigating some of history's most notorious pandemics and diseases,Plagues, Pandemics, and Viruses takes a look at human resilience and what we've learned from the past. It looks at how science, the medical community, and governments have conquered or mitigated most epidemics even before they can turn into pandemics. It reviews the science of pandemics, preventative measures, and medical interventionsand it includesan exclusive interview with Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases since 1984, as well as other experts in the medical community. Richly illustrated, it also has a helpful bibliography and extensive index. This invaluable resource is designed to help you understand, and protect you from, plagues, pandemics, epidemics, viruses, and disease!

Viruses Plagues and History

Viruses  Plagues  and History
Author: Michael B. A. Oldstone
Release: 2020
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
Pages: 512
ISBN: 9780190056780
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

"Here, my previous edition of Viruses, Plagues, & History is updated to reflect both progress and disappointment since that publication. This edition describes newcomers to the range of human infections, specifically, plagues that play important roles in this 21st century. The first is Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), an infection related to Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). SARS was the first new-found plague of this century. Zika virus, which is similar to yellow fever virus in being transmitted by mosquitos, is another of the recent scourges. Zika appearing for the first time in the Americas is associated with birth defects and a paralytic condition in adults. Lastly, illness due to hepatitis viruses were observed prominently during the second World War initially associated with blood transfusions and vaccine inoculations. Since then, hepatitis virus infections have afflicted millions of individuals, in some leading to an acute fulminating liver disease or more often to a life-long persistent infection. A subset of those infected has developed liver cancer. However, in a triumph of medical treatments for infectious diseases, pharmaceuticals have been developed whose use virtually eliminates such maladies. For example, Hepatitis C virus infection has been eliminated from almost all (>97%) of its victims. This incredible result was the by-product of basic research in virology as well as cell and molecular biology during which intelligent drugs were designed to block events in the hepatitis virus life-cycle"--

Plagues Pandemics and Viruses

Plagues  Pandemics and Viruses
Author: Heather E. Quinlan
Release: 2020
Editor: Unknown
Pages: 329
ISBN: 1787859851
Language: en
Available for:

REVIEWS:

Plagues, Pandemics, and Viruses: From the Plague of Athens to Covid 19 is an enlightening, and sometimes frightening, recounting of the destruction wrought by disease, but it also looks at what man has done and can do to overcome even the deadliest and bleakest of contagions.

Viruses Pandemics and Immunity

Viruses  Pandemics  and Immunity
Author: Arup K. Chakraborty,Andrey Shaw
Release: 2021-02-16
Editor: MIT Press
Pages: 224
ISBN: 9780262542388
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

How viruses emerge to cause pandemics, how our immune system combats them, and how diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antiviral therapies work. Throughout history, humans have contended with pandemics. History is replete with references to plagues, pestilence, and contagion, but the devastation wrought by pandemics had been largely forgotten by the twenty-first century. Now, the enormous human and economic toll of the rapidly spreading COVID-19 disease offers a vivid reminder that infectious disease pandemics are one of the greatest existential threats to humanity. This book provides an accessible explanation of how viruses emerge to cause pandemics, how our immune system combats them, and how diagnostic tests, vaccines, and antiviral therapies work-- concepts that are a foundation for our public health policies.

The Plague Year

The Plague Year
Author: Lawrence Wright
Release: 2021
Editor: Knopf
Pages: 336
ISBN: 9780593320723
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

Beginning with the absolutely critical first moments of the outbreak in China, and ending with an epilogue on the vaccine rollout and the unprecedented events between the election of Joseph Biden and his inauguration, Lawrence Wright's The Plague Year surges forward with essential information--and fascinating historical parallels--examining the medical, economic, political, and social ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Epidemics and Society

Epidemics and Society
Author: Frank M. Snowden
Release: 2019-10-22
Editor: Yale University Press
Pages: 512
ISBN: 9780300249149
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

A wide-ranging study that illuminates the connection between epidemic diseases and societal change, from the Black Death to Ebola This sweeping exploration of the impact of epidemic diseases looks at how mass infectious outbreaks have shaped society, from the Black Death to today. In a clear and accessible style, Frank M. Snowden reveals the ways that diseases have not only influenced medical science and public health, but also transformed the arts, religion, intellectual history, and warfare. A multidisciplinary and comparative investigation of the medical and social history of the major epidemics, this volume touches on themes such as the evolution of medical therapy, plague literature, poverty, the environment, and mass hysteria. In addition to providing historical perspective on diseases such as smallpox, cholera, and tuberculosis, Snowden examines the fallout from recent epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and Ebola and the question of the world’s preparedness for the next generation of diseases.

Apollo s Arrow

Apollo s Arrow
Author: Nicholas A. Christakis
Release: 2020-10-27
Editor: Little, Brown Spark
Pages: 384
ISBN: 9780316628228
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

A piercing and scientifically grounded look at the emergence of the coronavirus pandemic and how it will change the way we live—"excellent and timely." (The New Yorker) Apollo's Arrow offers a riveting account of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic as it swept through American society in 2020, and of how the recovery will unfold in the coming years. Drawing on momentous (yet dimly remembered) historical epidemics, contemporary analyses, and cutting-edge research from a range of scientific disciplines, bestselling author, physician, sociologist, and public health expert Nicholas A. Christakis explores what it means to live in a time of plague—an experience that is paradoxically uncommon to the vast majority of humans who are alive, yet deeply fundamental to our species. Unleashing new divisions in our society as well as opportunities for cooperation, this 21st-century pandemic has upended our lives in ways that will test, but not vanquish, our already frayed collective culture. Featuring new, provocative arguments and vivid examples ranging across medicine, history, sociology, epidemiology, data science, and genetics, Apollo's Arrow envisions what happens when the great force of a deadly germ meets the enduring reality of our evolved social nature.

Psychiatry of Pandemics

Psychiatry of Pandemics
Author: Damir Huremović
Release: 2019-05-15
Editor: Springer
Pages: 185
ISBN: 9783030153465
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

This book focuses on how to formulate a mental health response with respect to the unique elements of pandemic outbreaks. Unlike other disaster psychiatry books that isolate aspects of an emergency, this book unifies the clinical aspects of disaster and psychosomatic psychiatry with infectious disease responses at the various levels, making it an excellent resource for tackling each stage of a crisis quickly and thoroughly. The book begins by contextualizing the issues with a historical and infectious disease overview of pandemics ranging from the Spanish flu of 1918, the HIV epidemic, Ebola, Zika, and many other outbreaks. The text acknowledges the new infectious disease challenges presented by climate changes and considers how to implement systems to prepare for these issues from an infection and social psyche perspective. The text then delves into the mental health aspects of these crises, including community and cultural responses, emotional epidemiology, and mental health concerns in the aftermath of a disaster. Finally, the text considers medical responses to situation-specific trauma, including quarantine and isolation-associated trauma, the mental health aspects of immunization and vaccination, survivor mental health, and support for healthcare personnel, thereby providing guidance for some of the most alarming trends facing the medical community. Written by experts in the field, Psychiatry of Pandemics is an excellent resource for infectious disease specialists, psychiatrists, psychologists, immunologists, hospitalists, public health officials, nurses, and medical professionals who may work patients in an infectious disease outbreak.

The Coming Plague

The Coming Plague
Author: Laurie Garrett
Release: 1994-10-31
Editor: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Pages: 250
ISBN: 9781429953276
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

A New York Times bestseller The definitive account of the infectious diseases threatening humanity by Pulitzer Prize–winning investigative journalist Laurie Garrett "Prodigiously researched . . . A frightening vision of the future and a deeply unsettling one." —Michiko Kakutani, The New York Times After decades spent assuming that the conquest of infectious disease was imminent, people on all continents now find themselves besieged by AIDS, drug-resistant tuberculosis, cholera that defies chlorine water treatment, and exotic viruses that can kill in a matter of hours. Relying on extensive interviews with leading experts in virology, molecular biology, disease ecology, and medicine, as well as field research in sub-Saharan Africa, Western Europe, Central America, and the United States, Laurie Garrett's The Coming Plague takes readers from the savannas of eastern Bolivia to the rain forests of the northern Democratic Republic of the Congo on a harrowing, fifty year journey through the history of our battles with microbes. This book is a work of investigative reportage like no other and a wake-up call to a world that has become complacent in the face of infectious disease—one that offers a sobering and prescient warning about the dangers of ignoring the coming plague.

The Essential Handbook of Epidemics Viruses and Plagues

The Essential Handbook of Epidemics  Viruses and Plagues
Author: Pete Moore
Release: 2006
Editor: Viking
Pages: 144
ISBN: 0670070807
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

The three greatest killers in human historyhave not been war, famine, or natural disaster. They have been influenza, Black Death and AIDS. In the face of anxiety about an avian flu outbreak, The Essential Handbook of Epidemics, Viruses and Plagues puts it all in context. A concise and compelling insight into 50 of the most virulent and vicious plagues, pandemics and infectious diseases known to medical science, this is your guide book to diseases of the past and present with some warnings about the future.

After the Virus

After the Virus
Author: Hilary Cooper,Simon Szreter
Release: 2021-09-23
Editor: Cambridge University Press
Pages: 175
ISBN: 9781009005203
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

Reveals the deep roots of the UK's lack of resilience when COVID-19 hit and sets out an ambitious manifesto for change.

The Threat of Pandemic Influenza

The Threat of Pandemic Influenza
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Release: 2005-04-09
Editor: National Academies Press
Pages: 430
ISBN: 9780309095044
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

Public health officials and organizations around the world remain on high alert because of increasing concerns about the prospect of an influenza pandemic, which many experts believe to be inevitable. Moreover, recent problems with the availability and strain-specificity of vaccine for annual flu epidemics in some countries and the rise of pandemic strains of avian flu in disparate geographic regions have alarmed experts about the world's ability to prevent or contain a human pandemic. The workshop summary, The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? addresses these urgent concerns. The report describes what steps the United States and other countries have taken thus far to prepare for the next outbreak of "killer flu." It also looks at gaps in readiness, including hospitals' inability to absorb a surge of patients and many nations' incapacity to monitor and detect flu outbreaks. The report points to the need for international agreements to share flu vaccine and antiviral stockpiles to ensure that the 88 percent of nations that cannot manufacture or stockpile these products have access to them. It chronicles the toll of the H5N1 strain of avian flu currently circulating among poultry in many parts of Asia, which now accounts for the culling of millions of birds and the death of at least 50 persons. And it compares the costs of preparations with the costs of illness and death that could arise during an outbreak.

The End of October

The End of October
Author: Lawrence Wright
Release: 2021-04-27
Editor: Vintage
Pages: 400
ISBN: 9780593081143
Language: en
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At an internment camp in Indonesia, forty-seven people are pronounced dead with acute hemorrhagic fever. When epidemiologist Henry Parsons travels there on behalf of the World Health Organization to investigate, what he finds will have staggering repercussions. Halfway across the globe, the deputy director of U.S. Homeland Security scrambles to mount a response to the rapidly spreading pandemic leapfrogging around the world, which she believes may be the result of an act of biowarfare. And a rogue experimenter in man-made diseases is preparing his own terrifying solution. As already-fraying global relations begin to snap, the virus slashes across the United States, dismantling institutions and decimating the population. With his own wife and children facing diminishing odds of survival, Henry travels from Indonesia to Saudi Arabia to his home base at the CDC in Atlanta, searching for a cure and for the origins of this seemingly unknowable disease.

The History of the World in 100 Pandemics Plagues and Epidemics

The History of the World in 100 Pandemics  Plagues and Epidemics
Author: Paul Chrystal
Release: 2021-08-31
Editor: Pen and Sword History
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9781399005432
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

This revelatory book charts and explains the impact and consequences of successive pandemics, plagues and epidemics on the course of world history – all through the lens of today’s ongoing global experience of COVID 19. Ranging from prehistory to the present day, it first defines what constitutes a pandemic or epidemic then looks at 20 guilty diseases: including cholera, influenza, bubonic plague, leprosy, measles, smallpox, malaria, AIDS, MERS, SARS, Zika, Ebola and, of course, Covid-19. Some less well-known, but equally significant and deadly contagions such as Legionnaires’ Disease, psittacosis, polio, the Sweat, and dancing plague, are also covered. The book is ordered chronologically. Each chapter features an explanation and description of epidemiology, sources and vectors, morbidity, mortality, governmental response and reaction, societal response and impact as well as psychological issues where known - and the political, legal and scientific consequences it had or has for each locus at a local and international level. In short – the book explains how each of the events both made and influenced subsequent history in its own way, particularly how each shaped future medical and scientific research and vaccine development programmes. It also examines myths about infectious diseases, the role of the media and social media. Perhaps most importantly, Paul Chrystal asks what lessons have been learnt. Will we be better prepared next time? Because, if one thing is sure, there is going to be a ‘next time’.

Plagues and the Paradox of Progress

Plagues and the Paradox of Progress
Author: Thomas J. Bollyky
Release: 2019-10-01
Editor: MIT Press
Pages: 276
ISBN: 9780262537964
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

Why the news about the global decline of infectious diseases is not all good. Plagues and parasites have played a central role in world affairs, shaping the evolution of the modern state, the growth of cities, and the disparate fortunes of national economies. This book tells that story, but it is not about the resurgence of pestilence. It is the story of its decline. For the first time in recorded history, virus, bacteria, and other infectious diseases are not the leading cause of death or disability in any region of the world. People are living longer, and fewer mothers are giving birth to many children in the hopes that some might survive. And yet, the news is not all good. Recent reductions in infectious disease have not been accompanied by the same improvements in income, job opportunities, and governance that occurred with these changes in wealthier countries decades ago. There have also been unintended consequences. In this book, Thomas Bollyky explores the paradox in our fight against infectious disease: the world is getting healthier in ways that should make us worry. Bollyky interweaves a grand historical narrative about the rise and fall of plagues in human societies with contemporary case studies of the consequences. Bollyky visits Dhaka—one of the most densely populated places on the planet—to show how low-cost health tools helped enable the phenomenon of poor world megacities. He visits China and Kenya to illustrate how dramatic declines in plagues have affected national economies. Bollyky traces the role of infectious disease in the migrations from Ireland before the potato famine and to Europe from Africa and elsewhere today. Historic health achievements are remaking a world that is both worrisome and full of opportunities. Whether the peril or promise of that progress prevails, Bollyky explains, depends on what we do next. A Council on Foreign Relations Book

Contagion

Contagion
Author: Richard Gunderman
Release: 2020-09-21
Editor: Welbeck Publishing Group
Pages: 160
ISBN: 9781787395565
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

As the outbreak of a new and deadly form of coronavirus dominates headlines and triggers fear and global recession, now is a good time to reflect on the history and science of transmissible diseases. Behind every disease is a story, from the natural history of the disease and its course in the individual, to the tale of the disease's description, discovery and treatment. From the impact of tuberculosis on English dynastic history to the makeup of our DNA; from the deadliest plagues of the ancient world to twenty-first century pandemics; and from the ravages of the Black Death to the discovery of antibodies, transmissible diseases have an incredible variety of tales to tell. Contagion explores some of the most notorious, grisly, and pernicious communicable diseases in history, revealing their hidden stories. In addition to discussing their symptoms, causes, prevention, and treatment, Richard Gunderman also discusses their impact on notable figures in history, from soldiers to monarchs; the extraordinary contributions of the scientists and physicians who battled them; as well as their impacts on world history and human evolution. Here are the exploits of Edward Jenner, who invented the first vaccine; John Snow, the first person to study disease scientifically; Louis Pasteur, who established the germ theory of infection, along with a myriad other remarkable stories in the never ending struggle between humanity and disease. The narrative is brought right up to date with the desperate battle to stem the Covid-19 pandemic and discover a vaccine. Renowned medical expert Dr Richard Gunderman shows how disease has shaped the evolution of our species and, if we don't take the proper steps, may yet threaten our very existence on this planet.

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Release: 2007-07-08
Editor: National Academies Press
Pages: 250
ISBN: 9780309107693
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

In recent public workshops and working group meetings, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has examined a variety of infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential, including those caused by influenza (IOM, 2005) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (IOM, 2004). Particular attention has been paid to the potential pandemic threat posed by the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, which is now endemic in many Southeast Asian bird populations. Since 2003, the H5N1 subtype of avian influenza has caused 185 confirmed human deaths in 11 countries, including some cases of viral transmission from human to human (WHO, 2007). But as worrisome as these developments are, at least they are caused by known pathogens. The next pandemic could well be caused by the emergence of a microbe that is still unknown, much as happened in the 1980s with the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and in 2003 with the appearance of the SARS coronavirus. Previous Forum meetings on pandemic disease have discussed the scientific and logistical challenges associated with pandemic disease recognition, identification, and response. Participants in these earlier meetings also recognized the difficulty of implementing disease control strategies effectively. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease: Workshop Summary as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop.

Flu

Flu
Author: Gina Kolata
Release: 2011-04-01
Editor: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Pages: 330
ISBN: 9781429979351
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

The fascinating, true story of the world's deadliest disease. In 1918, the Great Flu Epidemic felled the young and healthy virtually overnight. An estimated forty million people died as the epidemic raged. Children were left orphaned and families were devastated. As many American soldiers were killed by the 1918 flu as were killed in battle during World War I. And no area of the globe was safe. Eskimos living in remote outposts in the frozen tundra were sickened and killed by the flu in such numbers that entire villages were wiped out. Scientists have recently rediscovered shards of the flu virus frozen in Alaska and preserved in scraps of tissue in a government warehouse. Gina Kolata, an acclaimed reporter for The New York Times, unravels the mystery of this lethal virus with the high drama of a great adventure story. Delving into the history of the flu and previous epidemics, detailing the science and the latest understanding of this mortal disease, Kolata addresses the prospects for a great epidemic recurring, and, most important, what can be done to prevent it.

Plague Pestilence and Pandemic Voices from History

Plague  Pestilence and Pandemic  Voices from History
Author: Peter Furtado
Release: 2021-05-11
Editor: Thames & Hudson
Pages: 304
ISBN: 9780500776476
Language: en
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REVIEWS:

An eye-opening anthology from the bestselling editor of Histories of Nations, exploring how people around the globe have suffered and survived during plague and pandemic, from the ancient world to the present. Plague, pestilence, and pandemics have been a part of the human story from the beginning and have been reflected in art and writing at every turn. Humankind has always struggled with illness; and the experiences of different cities and countries have been compared and connected for thousands of years. Many great authors have published their eyewitness accounts and survivor stories of the great contagions of the past. When the great Muslim traveler Ibn Battuta visited Damascus in 1348 during the great plague, which went on to kill half of the population, he wrote about everything he saw. He reported, "God lightened their affliction; for the number of deaths in a single day at Damascus did not attain 2,000, while in Cairo it reached the figure of 24,000 a day." From the plagues of ancient Egypt recorded in Genesis to those like the Black Death that ravaged Europe in the Middle Ages, and from the Spanish flu of 1918 to the Covid-19 pandemic in our own century, this anthology contains fascinating accounts. Editor Peter Furtado places the human experience at the center of these stories, understanding that the way people have responded to disease crises over the centuries holds up a mirror to our own actions and experiences. Plague, Pestilence and Pandemic includes writing from around the world and highlights the shared emotional responses to pandemics: from rage, despair, dark humor, and heartbreak, to finally, hope that it may all be over. By connecting these moments in history, this book places our own reactions to the Covid-19 pandemic within the longer human story.