From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime

From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime
Author: Elizabeth Hinton
Release: 2016-05-09
Editor: Harvard University Press
Pages: 449
ISBN: 9780674737235
Language: en
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How did the land of the free become the home of the world’s largest prison system? Elizabeth Hinton traces the rise of mass incarceration to an ironic source: not the War on Drugs of the Reagan administration but the War on Crime that began during Johnson’s Great Society at the height of the civil rights era.

From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime

From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime
Author: Elizabeth Hinton
Release: 2016-05-09
Editor: Harvard University Press
Pages: 459
ISBN: 9780674969209
Language: en
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How did the land of the free become the home of the world’s largest prison system? Elizabeth Hinton traces the rise of mass incarceration to an ironic source: not the War on Drugs of the Reagan administration but the War on Crime that began during Johnson’s Great Society at the height of the civil rights era.

From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime

From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime
Author: Elizabeth Hinton
Release: 2017-08-04
Editor: Unknown
Pages: 449
ISBN: 0674979826
Language: en
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"In the United States today, one in every 31 adults is under some form of penal control, including one in eleven African American men. How did the "land of the free" become the home of the world's largest prison system? Challenging the belief that America's prison problem originated with the Reagan administration's War on Drugs, Elizabeth Hinton traces the rise of mass incarceration to an ironic source: the social welfare programs of Lyndon Johnson's Great Society at the height of the civil rights era. Johnson's War on Poverty policies sought to foster equality and economic opportunity. But these initiatives were also rooted in widely shared assumptions about African Americans' role in urban disorder, which prompted Johnson to call for a simultaneous War on Crime. The 1965 Law Enforcement Assistance Act empowered the national government to take a direct role in militarizing local police. Federal anticrime funding soon incentivized social service providers to ally with police departments, courts, and prisons. Under Richard Nixon and his successors, welfare programs fell by the wayside while investment in policing and punishment expanded. Anticipating future crime, policy makers urged states to build new prisons and introduced law enforcement measures into urban schools and public housing, turning neighborhoods into targets of police surveillance. By the 1980s, crime control and incarceration dominated national responses to poverty and inequality. The initiatives of that decade were less a sharp departure than the full realization of the punitive transformation of urban policy implemented by Republicans and Democrats alike since the 1960s."--Provided by publisher.

America on Fire The Untold History of Police Violence and Black Rebellion Since the 1960s

America on Fire  The Untold History of Police Violence and Black Rebellion Since the 1960s
Author: Elizabeth Hinton
Release: 2021-05-18
Editor: Liveright Publishing
Pages: 408
ISBN: 9781631498916
Language: en
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"If you want to understand the massive antiracist protests of 2020, put down the navel-gazing books about racial healing and read America on Fire." —Robin D. G. Kelley, author of Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination From one of our top historians, a groundbreaking story of policing and “riots” that shatters our understanding of the post–civil rights era. What began in spring 2020 as local protests in response to the killing of George Floyd by Minneapolis police quickly exploded into a massive nationwide movement. Millions of mostly young people defiantly flooded into the nation’s streets, demanding an end to police brutality and to the broader, systemic repression of Black people and other people of color. To many observers, the protests appeared to be without precedent in their scale and persistence. Yet, as the acclaimed historian Elizabeth Hinton demonstrates in America on Fire, the events of 2020 had clear precursors—and any attempt to understand our current crisis requires a reckoning with the recent past. Even in the aftermath of Donald Trump, many Americans consider the decades since the civil rights movement in the mid-1960s as a story of progress toward greater inclusiveness and equality. Hinton’s sweeping narrative uncovers an altogether different history, taking us on a troubling journey from Detroit in 1967 and Miami in 1980 to Los Angeles in 1992 and beyond to chart the persistence of structural racism and one of its primary consequences, the so-called urban riot. Hinton offers a critical corrective: the word riot was nothing less than a racist trope applied to events that can only be properly understood as rebellions—explosions of collective resistance to an unequal and violent order. As she suggests, if rebellion and the conditions that precipitated it never disappeared, the optimistic story of a post–Jim Crow United States no longer holds. Black rebellion, America on Fire powerfully illustrates, was born in response to poverty and exclusion, but most immediately in reaction to police violence. In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson launched the “War on Crime,” sending militarized police forces into impoverished Black neighborhoods. Facing increasing surveillance and brutality, residents threw rocks and Molotov cocktails at officers, plundered local businesses, and vandalized exploitative institutions. Hinton draws on exclusive sources to uncover a previously hidden geography of violence in smaller American cities, from York, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, to Stockton, California. The central lesson from these eruptions—that police violence invariably leads to community violence—continues to escape policymakers, who respond by further criminalizing entire groups instead of addressing underlying socioeconomic causes. The results are the hugely expanded policing and prison regimes that shape the lives of so many Americans today. Presenting a new framework for understanding our nation’s enduring strife, America on Fire is also a warning: rebellions will surely continue unless police are no longer called on to manage the consequences of dismal conditions beyond their control, and until an oppressive system is finally remade on the principles of justice and equality.

The Great Society and the War on Poverty An Economic Legacy in Essays and Documents

The Great Society and the War on Poverty  An Economic Legacy in Essays and Documents
Author: John R. Burch Jr.
Release: 2017-06-05
Editor: ABC-CLIO
Pages: 435
ISBN: 9781440833885
Language: en
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An ideal resource for students as well as general readers, this book comprehensively examines the Great Society era and identifies the effects of its legacy to the present day. • Documents the evolution of key issues addressed in the Great Society—such as civil rights, immigration, and the chasm between rich and poor—that are still challenging us today • Shows how young people were able to influence massive political and social change—in a time without the benefit of instant communication and social media • Includes dozens of primary documents, including Lyndon B. Johnson's 1964 State of the Union Address; the Civil Rights Act of 1964; Lyndon B. Johnson's "Stepping Up the War on Poverty" address; "Where Do We Go From Here?," delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. at the SCLC Convention Atlanta, GA; and remarks given by President Obama at the Civil Rights Summit at the LBJ Presidential Library in April 2014 • Includes content related to the themes of the National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies and the Common Core requirements for primary documents and critical thinking exercises

Racism in America

Racism in America
Author: Harvard University Press
Release: 2020-08-06
Editor: Harvard University Press
Pages: 276
ISBN: 9780674251663
Language: en
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Racism in America has been the subject of serious scholarship for decades. At Harvard University Press, we’ve had the honor of publishing some of the most influential books on the subject. The excerpts in this volume—culled from works of history, law, sociology, medicine, economics, critical theory, philosophy, art, and literature—are an invitation to understand anti-Black racism through the eyes of our most incisive commentators. Readers will find such classic selections as Toni Morrison’s description of the Africanist presence in the White American literary imagination, Walter Johnson’s depiction of the nation’s largest slave market, and Stuart Hall’s theorization of the relationship between race and nationhood. More recent voices include Khalil Gibran Muhammad on the pernicious myth of Black criminality, Elizabeth Hinton on the link between mass incarceration and 1960s social welfare programs, Anthony Abraham Jack on how elite institutions continue to fail first-generation college students, Mehrsa Baradaran on the racial wealth gap, Nicole Fleetwood on carceral art, and Joshua Bennett on the anti-Black bias implicit in how we talk about animals and the environment. Because the experiences of non-White people are integral to the history of racism and often bound up in the story of Black Americans, we have included writers who focus on the struggles of Native Americans, Latinos, and Asians as well. Racism in America is for all curious readers, teachers, and students who wish to discover for themselves the complex and rewarding intellectual work that has sustained our national conversation on race and will continue to guide us in future years.

War on Crime

War on Crime
Author: Claire Bond Potter
Release: 1998
Editor: Rutgers University Press
Pages: 250
ISBN: 0813524873
Language: en
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The first book to look at the structural, legal, and cultural aspects of J. Edgar Hoover's war on crime in the 1930s, a New Deal campaign which forged new links between citizenship, federal policing, and the ideal of centralized government. WAR ON CRIME reminds us of how and why our worship of violent celebrity hero G-men and gangsters came about and how we now are reaping the results. 10 photos.

The New Black History

The New Black History
Author: E. Hinton
Release: 2016-04-30
Editor: Springer
Pages: 326
ISBN: 9780230338043
Language: en
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The New Black History anthology presents cutting-edge scholarship on key issues that define African American politics, life, and culture, especially during the Civil Rights and Black Power eras. The volume includes articles by both established scholars and a rising generation of young scholars.

Battle for Bed Stuy

Battle for Bed Stuy
Author: Michael Woodsworth
Release: 2016-06-06
Editor: Harvard University Press
Pages: 416
ISBN: 9780674545069
Language: en
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In the 1960s Brooklyn’s Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood was labeled America’s largest ghetto. But its brownstones housed a coterie of black professionals intent on bringing order and hope to the community. In telling their story Michael Woodsworth reinterprets the War on Poverty by revealing its roots in local activism and policy experiments.

The War on Poverty

The War on Poverty
Author: Kyle Farmbry
Release: 2014-08-06
Editor: Lexington Books
Pages: 316
ISBN: 9780739190791
Language: en
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The War on Poverty: A Retrospective examines the strategies and programs launched since 1964 through the eyes of academics and practitioners engaged in education, health care, social services provision, and community economic development.

Launching the War on Poverty

Launching the War on Poverty
Author: Michael L. Gillette
Release: 2010-07-09
Editor: Oxford University Press
Pages: 480
ISBN: 9780199750689
Language: en
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Head Start, Job Corps, Foster Grandparents, College Work-Study, VISTA, Community Action, and the Legal Services Corporation are familiar programs, but their tumultuous beginning has been largely forgotten. Conceived amid the daring idealism of the 1960s, these programs originated as weapons in Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, an offensive spearheaded by a controversial new government agency. Within months, the Office of Economic Opportunity created an array of unconventional initiatives that empowered the poor, challenged the established order, and ultimately transformed the nation's attitudes toward poverty. In Launching the War on Poverty, historian Michael L. Gillette weaves together oral history interviews with the architects of the Great Society's boldest experiment. Forty-nine former poverty warriors, including Sargent Shriver, Adam Yarmolinsky, and Lawrence F. O'Brien, recount this inside story of unprecedented governmental innovation. The interviews capture the excitement and heady optimism of Americans in the 1960s along with their conflicts and disillusionment. This new edition of Launching the War on Poverty adds the voice of Lyndon Johnson to the story with excerpts from his recently-released White House telephone conversations. In these colorful and brutally candid conversations, LBJ exercises his full arsenal of presidential powers, political leverage, and legendary persuasiveness to win one of his most difficult legislative battles. The second edition also documents how the OEO's offspring survived their volatile origins to become broadly supported features of domestic policy.

Not a Crime to Be Poor

Not a Crime to Be Poor
Author: Peter Edelman
Release: 2017-10-31
Editor: The New Press
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9781620971642
Language: en
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Awarded “Special Recognition” by the 2018 Robert F. Kennedy Book & Journalism Awards Finalist for the American Bar Association’s 2018 Silver Gavel Book Award Named one of the “10 books to read after you've read Evicted” by the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel “A powerful investigation into the ways the United States has addressed poverty. . . . Lucid and troubling.” —Matthew Desmond, author of Evicted, in The Chronicle of Higher Education A nationally known expert on poverty shows how not having money has been criminalized and shines a light on lawyers, activists, and policy makers working for a more humane approach In addition to exposing racially biased policing, the Justice Department’s Ferguson Report exposed to the world a system of fines and fees levied for minor crimes in Ferguson, Missouri, that, when they proved too expensive for Ferguson’s largely poor, African American population, resulted in jail sentences for thousands of people. As former staffer to Robert F. Kennedy and current Georgetown law professor Peter Edelman explains in Not a Crime to Be Poor, Ferguson is everywhere in America today. Through money bail systems, fees and fines, strictly enforced laws and regulations against behavior including trespassing and public urination that largely affect the homeless, and the substitution of prisons and jails for the mental hospitals that have traditionally served the impoverished, in one of the richest countries on Earth we have effectively made it a crime to be poor. Edelman, who famously resigned from the administration of Bill Clinton over welfare "reform," connects the dots between these policies and others including school discipline in poor communities, child support policies affecting the poor, public housing ordinances, addiction treatment, and the specter of public benefits fraud to paint a picture of a mean-spirited, retributive system that seals whole communities into inescapable cycles of poverty.

The War on Poverty

The War on Poverty
Author: Annelise Orleck,Lisa Gayle Hazirjian
Release: 2011-11-01
Editor: University of Georgia Press
Pages: 480
ISBN: 9780820341842
Language: en
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Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty has long been portrayed as the most potent symbol of all that is wrong with big government. Conservatives deride the War on Poverty for corruption and the creation of "poverty pimps," and even liberals carefully distance themselves from it. Examining the long War on Poverty from the 1960s onward, this book makes a controversial argument that the programs were in many ways a success, reducing poverty rates and weaving a social safety net that has proven as enduring as programs that came out of the New Deal. The War on Poverty also transformed American politics from the grass roots up, mobilizing poor people across the nation. Blacks in crumbling cities, rural whites in Appalachia, Cherokees in Oklahoma, Puerto Ricans in the Bronx, migrant Mexican farmworkers, and Chinese immigrants from New York to California built social programs based on Johnson's vision of a greater, more just society. Contributors to this volume chronicle these vibrant and largely unknown histories while not shying away from the flaws and failings of the movement--including inadequate funding, co-optation by local political elites, and blindness to the reality that mothers and their children made up most of the poor. In the twenty-first century, when one in seven Americans receives food stamps and community health centers are the largest primary care system in the nation, the War on Poverty is as relevant as ever. This book helps us to understand the turbulent era out of which it emerged and why it remains so controversial to this day.

A Plague of Prisons

A Plague of Prisons
Author: Ernest Drucker
Release: 2013-05-28
Editor: New Press, The
Pages: 242
ISBN: 9781595589538
Language: en
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The public health expert and prison reform activist offers “meticulous analysis” on our criminal justice system and the plague of American incarceration (The Washington Post). An internationally recognized public health scholar, Ernest Drucker uses the tools of epidemiology to demonstrate that incarceration in the United States has become an epidemic—a plague upon our body politic. He argues that imprisonment, originally conceived as a response to the crimes of individuals, has become “mass incarceration”: a destabilizing force that damages the very social structures that prevent crime. Drucker tracks the phenomenon of mass incarceration using basic public health concepts—“incidence and prevalence,” “outbreaks,” “contagion,” “transmission,” “potential years of life lost.” The resulting analysis demonstrates that our unprecedented rates of incarceration have the contagious and self-perpetuating features of the plagues of previous centuries. Sure to provoke debate and shift the paradigm of how we think about punishment, A Plague of Prisons offers a novel perspective on criminal justice in twenty-first-century America. “How did America’s addiction to prisons and mass incarceration get its start and how did it spread from state to state? Of the many attempts to answer this question, none make as much sense as the explanation found in [this] book.” —The Philadelphia Inquirer

Punishment and Inequality in America

Punishment and Inequality in America
Author: Bruce Western
Release: 2006-05-25
Editor: Russell Sage Foundation
Pages: 264
ISBN: 9781610445559
Language: en
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Over the last thirty years, the prison population in the United States has increased more than seven-fold to over two million people, including vastly disproportionate numbers of minorities and people with little education. For some racial and educational groups, incarceration has become a depressingly regular experience, and prison culture and influence pervade their communities. Almost 60 percent of black male high school drop-outs in their early thirties have spent time in prison. In Punishment and Inequality in America, sociologist Bruce Western explores the recent era of mass incarceration and the serious social and economic consequences it has wrought. Punishment and Inequality in America dispels many of the myths about the relationships among crime, imprisonment, and inequality. While many people support the increase in incarceration because of recent reductions in crime, Western shows that the decrease in crime rates in the 1990s was mostly fueled by growth in city police forces and the pacification of the drug trade. Getting "tough on crime" with longer sentences only explains about 10 percent of the fall in crime, but has come at a significant cost. Punishment and Inequality in America reveals a strong relationship between incarceration and severely dampened economic prospects for former inmates. Western finds that because of their involvement in the penal system, young black men hardly benefited from the economic boom of the 1990s. Those who spent time in prison had much lower wages and employment rates than did similar men without criminal records. The losses from mass incarceration spread to the social sphere as well, leaving one out of ten young black children with a father behind bars by the end of the 1990s, thereby helping perpetuate the damaging cycle of broken families, poverty, and crime. The recent explosion of imprisonment is exacting heavy costs on American society and exacerbating inequality. Whereas college or the military were once the formative institutions in young men's lives, prison has increasingly usurped that role in many communities. Punishment and Inequality in America profiles how the growth in incarceration came about and the toll it is taking on the social and economic fabric of many American communities.

Cheap on Crime

Cheap on Crime
Author: Hadar Aviram
Release: 2015-02-06
Editor: Univ of California Press
Pages: 272
ISBN: 9780520277304
Language: en
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After forty years of increasing prison construction and incarceration rates, winds of change are blowing through the American correctional system. The 2008 financial crisis demonstrated the unsustainability of the incarceration project, thereby empowering policy makers to reform punishment through fiscal prudence and austerity. In Cheap on Crime, Hadar Aviram draws on years of archival and journalistic research and builds on social history and economics literature to show the powerful impact of recession-era discourse on the death penalty, the war on drugs, incarceration practices, prison health care, and other aspects of the American correctional landscape.

Locking Up Our Own

Locking Up Our Own
Author: James Forman Jr.
Release: 2018-08-30
Editor: Abacus
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9780349143675
Language: en
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Winner of the 2018 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction Longlisted for the National Book Award One of the New York Times Book Review's 10 Best Books of 2017 Former public defender James Forman, Jr. is a leading critic of mass incarceration and its disproportionate impact on people of colour. In Locking Up Our Own, he seeks to understand the war on crime that began in the 1970s and why it was supported by many African American leaders in the nation's urban centres. Forman shows us that the first substantial cohort of black mayors, judges and police chiefs took office amid a surge in crime and drug addiction. Many prominent black officials, including Washington, DC mayor Marion Barry and federal prosecutor Eric Holder, feared that the gains of the civil rights movement were being undermined by lawlessness - and thus embraced tough-on-crime measures, including longer sentences and aggressive police tactics. In the face of skyrocketing murder rates and the proliferation of open-air drug markets, they believed they had no choice. But the policies they adopted would have devastating consequences for residents of poor black neighbourhoods. A former public defender, Forman tells riveting stories of politicians, community activists, police officers, defendants and crime victims. He writes with compassion about individuals trapped in terrible dilemmas - from the men and women he represented in court to officials struggling to respond to a public safety emergency. Locking Up Our Own enriches our understanding of why American society became so punitive and offers important lessons to anyone concerned about the future of race and the criminal justice system.

Capitalism Democracy and the Prevention of War and Poverty

Capitalism  Democracy and the Prevention of War and Poverty
Author: Peter Graeff,Guido Mehlkop
Release: 2008-11-20
Editor: Routledge
Pages: 228
ISBN: 9781134034826
Language: en
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For a very large part of the world’s population, poverty and war are still part of everyday life. Drawing on insights from several disciplines, this book attempts to find scientific answers to explain the relationship between conflict and poverty. This interdisciplinary volume brings together a range of arguments that synthesize both democratic and capitalist peace theory. Supported by a large body of research, contributors contend that nations with institutions that maximize individual political and civil rights minimize the probability of fighting each other. The volume includes: contributors from leading and award winning scholars in the field, including Bruce Russett and Erik Gartzke topics such as democratization and economic development, situated within the broader contexts of globalization and modernization contributions supported by empirical analyses, systematizing democratic and capitalist peace theories This book will be vital reading for students and scholars of International Relations and globalization, and also for a broader range of subjects including sociology, political science and economics.

Body Count

Body Count
Author: William John Bennett,John J. DiIulio
Release: 1996
Editor: Unknown
Pages: 271
ISBN: STANFORD:36105019236566
Language: en
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"Body Count diagnoses America's plague of violent crime. Its authors - William Bennett, John DiIulio, and John Walters - define the epidemic's size, its range, and its scope. Through stories and anecdotes they present the very real human tragedies behind the numbers. Most important, they describe the source of violent crime: abject moral poverty, the destitution visited upon children raised without loving, capable, responsible adults who teach right from wrong. Though dozens of other explanations have been offered for America's horrifying rates of violent crime - from academics and clinicians, cops and social workers, politicians on the right and the left - they are, at best, proxies for the real cause. It is not prisons (or their scarcity), guns (or their excess), the death penalty, the exclusionary rule, or even material impoverishment. Look to the root of a criminally twisted tree, the authors argue, and you will find only moral poverty and its parasite: drug abuse." "And argue they do, with both powerful rhetoric and rigorous analysis. Bennett, DiIulio, and Walters demolish such myths as economic poverty causes crime; the United States imprisons a disproportionate number of its citizens; drug abuse is a victimless crime...and nothing useful can be done about it anyway; the death penalty is today a major deterrent of crime; and incarceration doesn't work." "Each and every one of these myths is not merely wrong but tragically mistaken. The authors draw upon an immense fund of hard data and offer some of the most serious analysis ever given to America's criminal justice system - a system designed to protect America from violent crime, a system that has, for all practical purposes, failed, with one in three violent crimes committed by a person on either probation, parole, or pre-trial release. Body Count offers a radically new reading of the problem, proposes controversial but necessary policies at every level of government, profiles cities that are making progress against violent crime, and appeals to responsible citizens from all points on the political compass to join forces in the battle against moral poverty. It is certain to be one of the most read, discussed, and argued about books of the year."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Punitive Turn in American Life

The Punitive Turn in American Life
Author: Michael S. Sherry
Release: 2020-10-29
Editor: UNC Press Books
Pages: 312
ISBN: 9781469660714
Language: en
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In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson insisted that "the policeman is the frontline soldier in our war against crime," and police forces, arms makers, policy makers, and crime experts heeded this call to arms, bringing weapons and practices from the arena of war back home. The Punitive Turn in American Life offers a political and cultural history of the ways in which punishment and surveillance have moved to the center of American life and become imbued with militarized language and policies. Michael S. Sherry argues that, by the 1990s, the "war on crime" had been successfully broadcast to millions of Americans at an enormous cost--to those arrested, imprisoned, or killed and to the social fabric of the nation--and that the currents of vengeance that ran through the punitive turn, underwriting torture at home and abroad, found a new voice with the election of Donald J. Trump. By 2020, the connections between war-fighting and crime-fighting remained powerful, evident in campaigns against undocumented immigrants and the militarized police response to the nationwide uprisings after George Floyd's murder. Stoked by "forever war," the punitive turn endured even as it met fiercer resistance. From the racist system of mass incarceration and the militarization of criminal justice to gated communities, public schools patrolled by police, and armies of private security, Sherry chronicles the United States' slide into becoming a meaner, punishment-obsessed nation.